MANY RIBBONED BOW:
1 With the first ribbon make a 4″ long loop on one side of your hand.
2 Make a 4″ loop on the other side of your hand.
3 Make additional loops on each side of your hand until there are a total of 4 to 10. Cut the ribbon.
4 With the next ribbon or lace make loops on each side of your hand. Notice these loops are slightly smaller than those made with the first ribbon.
5 With the last ribbon make the smallest loops.
6 Make half the loops then make a center loop by bringing the ribbon toward you-up, over and around your thumb.
7 Continue making the rest of the loops with the last ribbon. Fold a 6″ piece of cloth covered wire or chenille stem in half and insert through the center loops.
8 Bring the wire ends to the back of the bow and twist to secure the ribbons.
TO MAKE A BOW:
1 Measure 18″ from one end of the ribbon (this will be the tail or streamer of the bow). Pinch between the thumb and finger of your left hand.
2 Make a loop on each side of your hand.
3 Make two more loops, one on each side of your hand.
4 Make a center loop by bringing the ribbon toward you up, over and around the thumb.
5 Make four more loops two on each side of your hand.
6 Cut off a 4″ length of cloth covered wire or chenille stem. Bend in half and insert through the center loops.
7 Bring the wire ends to the back of the bow and twist to secure the bow.
8 If necessary, floral tape the bow wires to a 2″ piece of 20 gauge wire. Trim the tails of the bow at an angle.
MYSTERY PAPER RING.
How many paper rings do you think you would have if you cut one paper ring in half? One? Two?
Cut a strip of paper about one inch wide and about as long as two rulers. Loop the strip into a ring. Give the strip a half twist before pasting the ends of the strip together. See Picture.
Poke a hole in the middle of the strip with scissors. Start to cut along the middle of the strip. Be sure to follow the curve of the paper. When you get back to the starting point, what do you have? Not two rings as you thought you’d have. You have one big ring, instead!
You know what happens when you cut a mystery ring. What do you think will happen if you try to color one side red and the other side green?
Make another mystery ring. Start coloring one side red. Keep coloring until you get back to where you started, so that you know one side of the paper ring is red.
Now, you’re ready to color the other side green. But, what happened? You have no place to color it green. That is because the mystery ring seems to have only one side. This seemingly one-sided ring is called a Mobius strip.
Make another Mobius strip. But this time cut it in thirds. You’ll get another surprise!
PUZZLES TO MAKE.
You can find some puzzles in books and magazines you have at home, and you can buy some puzzles in stores. But sometimes it’s more fun to make your own puzzles. Can you make and do these square and triangle puzzles?
First, make four squares out of twelve toothpicks, like the ones in the picture. Then try to take away two toothpicks so that you have only two squares. Now make six squares with seventeen toothpicks. See Picture. Can you take away six toothpicks so that you have only two squares?
Make a triangle with ten coins of the same kind, placed like the circles in the picture. Can you move only three coins so that the triangle will be upside down—so that the point will point down instead of up?
This picture puzzle is made of many designs. How many squares, rectangles, triangles, pentagons, and circles can you find?
There are crossword puzzles and jigsaw puzzles, number puzzles, and letter puzzles. Now here are some puzzles with triangles, rectangles, squares, and circles. Use tracing paper and see how many of them you can do.
Can you trace these triangles without going over a line, and without lifting your pencil from the paper?
RECTANGLE AND TRIANGLE PUZZLE.
This puzzle looks like an open envelope with the flap up. Can you trace the drawing without going over a line more than once, and without lifting your pencil from the paper?
CIRCLE AND HALF-MOONS PUZZLE.
Can you trace the circle and half moons without lifting your pencil from the paper?
SQUARE AND RECTANGLE PUZZLE.
A farmer left a plot of land to four sons. The plot was shaped like this:
Can you divide this plot of land so that each son would have a plot of land the same size and the same shape?
Triangles and squares are flat designs. But you can use them to make shapes that are not flat. Sometimes they can even stand up by themselves. These shapes are called solid shapes. A solid shape has length, width, and thickness.
Here’s how to make a solid shape that will stand up by itself. Trace this triangle design for your pattern. 1. Cut out the tracing. 2. Trace your pattern on construction paper. 3. Cut out the pattern. 4. Fold the paper on the dotted lines. 5. Fold the tabs over and paste them down. Now you have a shape that looks like this:
We call this shape a pyramid. A pyramid is a solid shape. Long ago, people in Egypt built huge pyramids of stone.
Now trace this square shape for your pattern. Follow the five steps listed above. And you have a shape that looks like this:
We call this shape a cube. A cube is a solid shape. Water freezes into ice cubes in an ice-cube tray.
You can combine triangles and squares and get still other solid shapes. Trace this triangle and square design. Follow the five steps listed on the facing page. When you’re through, you have a shape that looks like the one in the picture below. We call this shape a polyhedron. Poly means many, and hedron means sides. “Polyhedron” always means a solid shape with many sides.
You can make mobiles, Christmas tree ornaments, and party decorations with your pyramids, cubes, and polyhedrons. Loop them with string and hang them up.
Can you take a strip of paper as long as a ruler and turn it into a star? First, carefully tie the strip of paper into a loose knot. Then, flatten the knot with your fist. You will have a design with five sides called a pentagon. Fold one end of the strip over the pentagon. Hold it up to a strong light. And what do you see? A five-pointed star!
Can you turn this square into a rectangle? You might think it’s impossible, but it really isn’t. Here’s what you do. Divide the square into three parts A, B, and C. If you fit parts A, B, and C together like this, you can make a rectangle from a square.
Now try to make a triangle from this square. Divide the square into two parts A and B. Fit the parts together as shown below, and you can make a triangle from a square.
Make your own pattern out of construction paper or thin cardboard. Then, see how many other ways you can make a rectangle from a square, or a triangle from a square.
Some designs look like Christmas trees, and some look like sheets of paper. Some designs look like pennies, and some even look like buildings.
This design looks like a paper napkin folded kitty-cornered. The design is called a triangle. It has three sides. The sides meet and form corners. The corners are called angles. A triangle has three angles. All triangles have three sides and three angles. Tri means three.
This design looks like a sheet of paper. It has four sides. The design is called a rectangle. Red means right. An angle is called a right angle when its sides make a square corner. The four angles of the rectangle are right angles.
This design is a rectangle, too. It has four sides and four corners or angles. But it is a special kind of rectangle called a square. It’s called a square because all four sides are the same length.
This design looks like a penny. The design is called a circle. It has no sides and no corners or angles. It just goes all around and meets itself where it began.
This design looks like a famous building in Washington, D.C. The design has five sides and five corners or angles. It’s called a pentagon. The building in Washington, D.C, is called the Pentagon. Penta means five and gon means angle.
All these designs are as flat as they can be, and they have length and width. We call these flat designs planes.
The shape of things.
Some shapes and designs are as flat as a sheet of paper. Others are as thick as a telephone pole. You see flat designs and thick designs everywhere. The next pages show you some of the things you can make and do with many kinds of shapes and designs.